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An Introduction to Theories of Personality: 7th Edition by Robert B. Ewen PDF

By Robert B. Ewen

This seventh Edition helps scholars get to the bottom of the mysteries of human habit via its hugely readable creation to the information of the main major character theorists.

Engaging biographical sketches start every one bankruptcy, and specified pill summaries support scholars evaluation key concepts.  Theories come alive in the course of the inclusion of quotations from the theorists’ writings and diverse functions corresponding to dream interpretation, psychopathology, and psychotherapy.

Significant alterations within the seventh version comprise a longer dialogue of the sensible purposes of character conception, with an emphasis on instructions that may aid humans elevate their self-knowledge, make larger judgements, and stay extra enjoyable lives.

Fictionalized yet true-to-life examples illustrating the perils of insufficient self-knowledge contain students, mom and dad, terrorists, enterprise executives, and politicians, whereas different examples express the confident results which can consequence from a greater realizing of one’s unconscious.

This seventh variation additionally contains a extra huge dialogue of the way a scarcity of self-understanding brought on problems for such famous theorists as Freud and Erikson, and a brand new part that explains how habit may be strongly encouraged by way of the location in addition to by means of one’s personality.

Finally, a brand new interactive site presents perform try out questions and different subject matters of interest.

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Thus apparently bungled actions may prove to be quite skillful displays of unconscious motivation. The Unconscious The common occurrence of parapraxes implies that much of personality is beyond our immediate awareness. Freud concludes that most of personality and mental activity is unconscious and cannot be called to mind even with great effort. Information that is not conscious at a given moment, but which can readily become so, is described as preconscious. The preconscious is much closer to the conscious than to the unconscious because it is largely within our control.

Freud, 1917a, p. ) The Superego According to psychoanalytic theory, infants have no sense of right and wrong. ) At first this function is carried out by the parents, on whom the helpless child must depend for many years. They reward certain behaviors, a gratifying reassurance of their presence and affection. But they also punish other actions, a threatening sign that the child has lost their love and is now at the mercy of an awesome and dangerous environment. Partly to protect itself from such disasters, and partly because it identifies with the all-powerful parents, the ego begins to internalize (introject) their standards.

Rationalization consists of using and believing superficially plausible explanations in order to justify unacceptable behavior (E. Jones, 1908). Unlike excuses, which are designed to persuade someone else, rationalizations reduce anxiety by concealing the truth from the person who uses them. For example, a man who abuses his wife may convince himself that he is in some way the real victim. A poorly prepared student who fails an examination may decide that the grading system was unfair. An inferior teacher may conclude that the students lack ability.

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